Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms.

Use a model to illustrate the role of cellular division (mitosis) and differentiation in producing and maintaining complex organisms.

Communicate scientific information that common ancestry and biological evolution are supported by multiple lines of empirical evidence.

Apply concepts of statistics and probability to support explanations that organisms with an advantageous heritable trait tend to increase in proportion to organisms lacking this trait.

Construct an explanation based on evidence for how natural selection leads to the adaptation of populations.